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Hinde & Dauch Paper Company

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HINDE & DAUCH PAPER COMPANY

It was back in the 1880's that two young men, Mr. J. J. Hinde and Mr. J. J. Dauch, who had been raised on Erie County Ohio farms, bought a power threshing machine to thresh wheat and oats on the small farms in the surrounding country. They quickly learned that make a success with this machine they needed more work, as the threshing season short. Soon after, they added a baling machine which was run by their threshing engine.

To keep the baling machine busy, they bought straw which was baled and sold to straw paper mills. One of their customers was the Sandusky Paper Mill. This mill made the old-fashioned straw wrapping paper used by butchers at that time. Some of us may still remember carrying meat home wrapped in that type of paper.

In the year 1888 these two men leased the Sandusky Paper Mill to insure steady demand for their baled straw. This was the beginning of what was to be a giant industry with mills and factories located in the principal cities of industrial America.

They bought the mill in 1892 and later sold it to the Columbia Straw Paper Company. Mr. Hinde and Mr. Dauch remained as managers.

In 1895 and 1896 the partners developed the Climax Bottle Wrapper and shortly after purchased the original Water Street Factory. The present Delphos, Ohio, Straw Mill was acquired in 1898 to insure enough straw paper to manufacture the Climax Wrappers. Single faced and double-faced straw boards, and cartons were added to the line during the next two years.
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In 1900 The Hinde & Dauche Paper Company was incorporated in West Virginia, and in 1904, was succeeded by the present Ohio Corporation.

The Sandusky Paper Mill was repurchased from the Columbia Straw Paper Company in 1901 and two year later the land on which No. 2 Straw Mill now stands was bought.

Then came the development of the corrugated fibre shipping box for express and freight shipments which were accepted by the railroads in 1906. The demand was so great that the Water Street factory was rebuilt to take care of the ever increasing business. In the same year, a jute and chip board mill and factory was taken over in Hoboken, New Jersey, and in 1907, a jute board mill and factory was purchased in Muncie, Indiana.

In 1910 Mr. J.J. Hinde sold his interest in the Company, Mr. J. J. Dauch became President, and Mr. Sidney Frohman joined the Company as its Treasurer.

During the same year, the Company formed and acquired control of a branch factory in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Hobokcn, New Jersey, mill and box factory were dismantled and the machinery moved to Gloucester, New Jersey, where a larger combined plant was purchased.

At this time work began on the No. 2 Straw Paper Mill in Sandusky, Ohio, which was finished and running in December 1911.

In the meantime, the demand for corrugated shipping boxes was growing so fast that the Sandusky Factory became too small to take care of the increased business, so the James Woolworth Handle Factory, located on the pier directly in the rear of the Water Street Factory, was taken over in 1913 and a bridge built over Railroad Street and the railroad right of way to connect the two buildings. This extra space helped the overcrowded condition for some years.

The same year a serious fire destroyed a good part of the main mill of the Gloucester New Jersey group, which was covered by insurance and rebuilt and in operation again by the end of the year. About the same time the Company became the main stockholder in the newly formed Frohman Chemical Company, manufacturers of silicate of soda, most of which was sold to the H & D Factories. This company was later sold.

The World War created new problems and demands. The shortage of lumber for box making material, plus transportation needs to carry food stuffs and supplies to maintain our armies at home and at the front forced manufacturers in all lines to turn to the corrugated shipping box.

To meet these extraordinary new demands, a large jute board mill at Watertown, New York, and a complete box factory in Cleveland, Ohio, were taken over from the J. N. Hahn interests in 1917. In the same year, the old Woolworth plant was torn down and the foundation of the present Sandusky Factory was laid and operations moved from the Water Street Factory in the Summer of 1918. The General Offices remained in the old building.

On the morning of August 15, 1918, Mr. J. J. Dauch met with accidental death and Mr.Sidney Frohman, Treasurer of the Company, became President and General Manager.

In 1920 the Water Street Property was sold to the American Crayon Company and control of the Brown Paper Company at Fort Madison, Iowa, was acquired. Plans for the Company's large Straw Paper Mill, to be erected beside the original mill in Fort Madison, were started in 1921 and the manufacture of straw paper began in March 1922. Many improvements were started in 1923 on the Gloucester, New Jersey plants. These were finished in April 1925.

Control of the Kansas City Fibre Box Company of Kansas City, Kansas, was acquired in September 1926 and this marked the entrance of H&D into the field of manufacturing solid fibre boxes.

Construction of the General Office building in Sandusky, Ohio, was begun in the Fall of 1926; the corner stone laid on December 11 and on April 18, 1927, the offices were moved from the Water Street location.

On December 14, 1927, the J. M. Raffel Company, box factory in Baltimore, Maryland, was taken over, and on January 1, 1928, the Thompson & Norris plants in Brooklyn, New York, Boston, Massachusetts, Brookville, Indiana, Toronto, Ontario, and Montreal, Quebec, were acquired. The two Canadian properties were turned over to the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company of Canada, Limited, which disposed of the Toronto unit, and in turn, enlarged the H. & D plant.

On August 1, 1928, the property of the Standard Corrugated Box Company of St. Louis, Missouri, was purchased.

The Corrugated Fibre Box Factory of the David M. Lea Company, Richmond, Virginia, was taken over on February 1, 1930, and the Company entered the rapidly developing South, fast becoming a factor in the Nation's industrial picture.

December 1, 1930, the Buffalo Box Factory, Buffalo, New York, joined the now
far flung chain of H. & D. factories and on January 1, 1931, construction of a new factory was begun in Baltimore, Maryland, and on March 1st of the same year, operations were started in one of the most modern box factories built up to that time.

As the lease on the building in which the Brooklyn, New York, factory was located expired shortly, a new factory to house the equipment was started in the spring of 1932 in Hoboken, New Jersey, and operations of this, the last word in shipping box factories, began January 1, 1933.

On April 4, !935, the Evans Fibre Box Company, Chicago, Illinois, joined the H. & D. group with a most efficient and up-to-date corrugated box plant.

Following this, the Company began the operation of a new plant at Lenoir, North Carolina, early in 1939 and later that year built, equipped and began making boxes in a modern, highly efficient manner at Detroit, Michigan.

About this time plans were considered to enlarge the General Office Building in Sandusky, Ohio, as the expansion of the Company since it was built created an overcrowded condition. Work on a new wing began January 1, 1937, and was completed and occupied Mav 1st. of the same year.

To complete the chain of most modern corrugated shipping box factories, ground was broken for a new plant in Gloucester, New Jersey, on January 1,1937, and completed October 5th. This building is now one of the group of four units at this point.

From the beginning, The Hinde & Dauch Paper Company has produced its own strawboard for corrugating, and some of its liner boards to insure the quality of its products and prompt service to its thousands of customers in almost every line of business throughout industrial North America.

To widen its markets, it has maintained for many years at a number of factories, departments of experimental box design, now known as Package Laboratories. Here have been designed many types of boxes and specialties to meet the needs of countless products. Boxes to ship four one gallons of paint; boxes to ship complete sets of dishes; boxes to ship bed room furniture; boxes to ship large radios; boxes to ship butter, and when opened to be used as counter displays; boxes to ship cookies and crackers, also used as display units. Hundreds of styles to ship thousands of products have been designed, and every day new ones are being added.

The Chemical Laboratory, installed some years ago, has developed a number of specialties that are destined to aid in the progress of the Company. Among them is the Variton formula of coloring box board in a wide range of colors that also made possible the special "all over'' design boxes; insulating material for homes, refrigerators and automobiles; sound deadening and decorative material for the automotive industry. It is also the duty of the Laboratory to test and check all the materials that enter into the finished products of mills and factories, that the rigid standards set up are maintained at all times.

Twenty-six separate manufacturing plants, in eighteen cities, now go to make up The Hinde & Dauch Paper Company, all of which are committed to the same standards of service that have guided the organization from the very beginning.

Such, in brief, is the history of The Hinde & Dauch Paper Company, now celebrating its Golden Anniversary, the largest manufacturers of corrugated shipping boxes, packing materials, and specialties in the world.


DOMTAR - THE CORPORATION, THE COMPANY AND THE DIVISION

INTRODUCTION

The Corrugated Containers Division (C. C. D.) of Domtar Packaging Limited is one element in a conglomerate of enterprises within the structure of a large corporate entity - Domtar Limited.

Domtar Limited is a Canadian controlled corporation composing three major operating companies, one of which is further organized into five subsidiary operating companies including Domtar Packaging Ltd. The Corrugated Containers Division is, in turn, one of three operating divisions of the packaging subsidiary.

We are thus part of a complex structure which has interests in a broad range of products and activities.

It is the aim of this section to explore this structure in some detail, m order to encourage a better understanding of the C.C.D.'s place and function within it, and to provide some of the historical background to its development.

THE CORPORTION- DOMTAR LIMITED

The structure of Domtar Ltd. is shown graphically in the attached organizational chart. The day to-day operations of the corporation are guided by a President and Chief Executive Officer who, in turn, responds to a Board of Directors, the representative of the corporate stock holders. Assisting the President are five administrative Vice Presidents, responsible for corporate services such as Engineering. Purchasing, Transportation, Industrial Relations, Human Resources, Finance, Research, Environmental Technology, Legal and Patent services and a host of other administrative functions attendant upon the operation of a large and complex corporation.

Also reporting directly to the Chief Executive are the Presidents of the three operating companies that produce Domtar's products and services. These are:
Domtar Chemicals Ltd.
Domtar Construction Materials Ltd.
Domtar Pulp and Paper Products Ltd.

DOMTAR PULP & PAPER PRODUCTS LTD.

Domtar Pulp and Paper Products Ltd. is the largest of the corporation's three product groups, responsible for approximately 65% of its total dollar sales.

The company operates 12 mills producing the widest variety of papers in the world made by one manufacturer. These mills, located in Quebec and Ontario, produce newsprint, pulp, fine papers and packaging materials.

Some of the grades of packaging papers and boards made in these mills supply the companies' 13 converting plants, which in turn, produce corrugated boxes, paper bags and fibre cans.
THE CORRUGATED CONTAINERS DIVISION
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Corrugated paperboard was first patented in 1856 by E. C. Healy and E. C. Allen in England as a fluted material for hat sweat bands The original patent in the packaging field, however, was issued in December, 1871, to A. L. Jones in the United States for an unlined fluted paperboard, used primarily as a packing around bottles, replacing the traditional excelsior or straw.

In 1874, Oliver Long was granted a U. S. patent for a fluted paper lined with one fiat facing, again directed at the wrapping of glass bottles for protection. Robert Thompson and Henry Norris, who started making these materials independently in Brooklyn, N. Y., formed the Thompson and Morris Company and, in 1875, they bought the Jones patent. The unlined and single-faced material was manufactured by this firm and later, by the Robert Gair Co. and the Hinde and Dauch Co. for some years.

It is not clear as to who first added the second facing to the single-faced material to form a rigid board but Robert Gair is generally credited with the development of the regular slotted style of corrugated box commonly in use today. The first corrugated box is said to have been used around 1897 for freight shipment of lamp chimneys wrapped in the Climax corrugated wrapper, produced by Hinde and Dauch in Sandusky, Ohio. The first official freight acceptance came in 1903, allowing the shipment of cereals by rail in corrugated paperboard containers.

Corrugated boxes were largely discriminated against in railway freight regulations, however, until 1912 when the R. W. Pridham Company of Los Angeles appealed to the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) for relief from penalties charged by the railroads for shipments in fibre boxes. On April 6, 1914, the ICC ruled, in effect, that railroads could no longer discriminate against fibre boxes, as such. The Pridham decision was the key to a phenomenal growth of the corrugated container industry in North America and throughout the world until, today, corrugated boxes are the prime containers used for moving almost every conceivable type of product, by any means of conveyance, to and from any point on the globe. The Corrugated Containers Division of Domtar Packaging Limited has its roots in the Hinde and Dauch Paper Co., one of the Industry's pioneers.

James Hinde and Joseph Dauch owned a small mill in Sandusky, Ohio, producing a wrapping paper made from chemically pulped straw. Shortly after the early Jones corrugated wrapping material was introduced, Hinde and Dauch (H & D) found that their strawboard was ideal for fluting and began producing a patented wrapper for bottles and lamp chimneys, called the "Climax" wrapper.

Along with Thompson and Norris and the Robert Gair Co., H&D gradually developed as manufacturers of corrugated containers in the United States. In 1905, the Diamond Flint Glass Company of Toronto began importing corrugated boxes from H & D in the U.S. to package fruit jars. The thirty-five percent import duty became onerous to Diamond Flint's management and they prevailed upon H & D to start a Canadian operation. In 1909, the Hinde and Dauch Paper Co. of Canada was established in a former machine shop on Sudbury Street in Toronto, comprising of a staff of ten men operating a forty-inch corrugating machine with ancillary slotting, scoring and printing equipment.

A year later the Company moved to a larger building on Hanna Avenue in Toronto and added equipment to produce solid-fibre boxes. Some three years later it was found necessary for the company to produce its own linerboard and a forty ton per day board machine was installed in the Hanna Ave. plant. Business expanded and, in 1927 H&D of Canada built a mill in Trenton, Ontario to produce straw-board corrugating medium. In 1928, the Canadian company acquired two additional corrugating plants, one in Montreal and one in Toronto, as part of the U.S. patent firm's acquisition of Thompson and Norris Co. This expansion, in turn, led to the necessity for further linerboard production capacity and, in 1929, a second cylinder board machine was installed in the Hanna Ave. location.

Throughout the Depression and the years of the Second World War, H&D continued in business with these facilities. In the expanding post-war economy, the company expanded too. First with a new corrugating plant in Chatham, Ontario and then one in Montreal, replacing the original facility acquired from Thompson and Norris.

In 1953, the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co (Westvaco) acquired control of the parent Hinde and Dauch company in the United States. Under Westvaco, H & D in Canada continued to expand, acquiring the Peterborough plant of Martln-Hewitt in 1953 and, in 1954, purchasing Corrugated Paper Box Company Ltd., with its folding carton plant in Leaside (Carton Specialties) and the subsidiary Hilton Brothers corrugated plants In Winnipeg and Calgary. The new Etobicoke plant was completed in 1955 and the St. Marys plant in 1958, following the cessation of corrugating operations in Chatham.

In 1959, control of the Canadian H & D operations was purchased from Westvaco by St. Lawrence Corporation, a Canadian company and one of the major producers of pulp and paper products in North America. Shortly after, St. Lawrence became part of the Domtar corporate structure and the H & D converting facilities formed the basis for what is now the Corrugated Containers Division of Domtar Packaging Limited.

Growth has continued under the Domtar regime with the building of new plants in Moncton, N. B. and Quebec City, the acquisition of the Superior Box Co. corrugating plant in Kitchener, Ontario, and the re-activation of the former Carton Specialties folding box plant in Leaside as a corrugated box facility.

With the manufacturing plants covering the country from Moncton, N.B. to Calgary, Alberta, Domtar's Corrugated Containers Division is the largest corrugated paperboard supplier in Canada and the only truly nationwide company in its field. With its strong roots deep in the history of this industry, its alliance with a major Canadian pulp and paper producer and the resources of one of Canada's largest corporations behind it, the Containers Division of Domtar Packaging Limited looks forward to a bright future in this vital basic industry.


Since this history was written much has happened to Hinde & Dauch. H&D itself has gone out of business and the plant at 43 Hanna Avenue was closed many years ago. Irwin Toy used the plant for a number of years until it too went out of business.
Now, in 2005, the building is being redeveloped as the Toy Factory, a residential project. The area is undergoing a major change away from industry to small commercial uses and residential. The CPR yards, the large John Inglis plant and the nearby massive Massey-Ferguson plants have all gone out of business, been demolished and replaced by varous types of residential development. Much more remains to be accomplished as the Parkdale area continues to change.

Redevelopment

 



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