|In the last few years, Mr.
Jos Koopmans of the Netherlands, has been
doing research on the physics of steam
locomotive exhausts systems with the goal of
developing a more-complete understanding of
their operation. To test his ideas about
exhaust system performance, RTM 56 was used
for exhaust tests in December of 1999.
Including water and coal it weighs 22 tons.
In the picture the electronic interface case
between the computer and the sensors is
clearly visibly, as is a cable from the
smokebox temperature sensor and the flexible
copper tube for the smokebox vacuum. The
photo below shows the blast pipe with the
4-fold orifice crown with 40 mm inserts in
The tests confirmed Mr. Koopmans'
theories about the function of
multiple-nozzle exhaust systems, which are
covered in detail in his paper "Unified
Exhaust Theory for Steam
Locomotives". This theory
became the basis of Jos' PhD thesis, which
he later expanded into a book which is
covered on this site on the Exhaust Systems