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Historian's Corner GIF This is the Second of many historical articles about railroading in the Western New York area, written by Society Historian, Greg Jandura. As more articles are added, old ones will be archived. So sit back, or feel free to print out, and enjoy the rich railway heritage of Western New York.

 Back to History Page    Bayview Tower      CHAPTER 2  
   CHAPTER 3      CHAPTER 4    CHAPTER 5  

McKinley and Prosperity

By: Greg Jandura

PanAm Poster 1901 ©BECHS 2001   As Western New Yorkers and Buffalonians, we are all quite familiar with the tragic assassination of William McKinley, twenty-fifth President of the United States when shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz on September 6, 1901 during a public reception in the Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition. President McKinley would despite the best medical efforts known at that time briefly recover then take a turn for the worse, dying on September 14, 1901. Not only did we mourn his passing here, as did the nation, but the whole world grieved over this senseless tragic loss. The eyes of the world were on Buffalo!
          As there was talk of commemorating the centennial of this event this year, I became quite interested in this subject, the more and more I learned while pouring through the pages of Buffalo's local newspapers getting a first-hand feel for the era and events. What really stood out was the unknown story of the railroads involvement from the election campaign of 1896, and 1900, President McKinley's frequent train travel while in office, the great cross-country journey culminating at the Pan-American Exposition, the funeral train to Washington, DC and lastly to Canton, Ohio. And yes, even Leon Czolgosz's journey to prison for his execution after his trial and conviction was by train.

To get a sense of beginning to this story, we must first go back to the Democratic Presidency of Grover Cleveland who served as both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President. During his first administration 1885-1889 he had inherited five major domestic problems, involving the Federal Civil Service; Federal pensions; labor unrest; abuses by the railroads in their business methods; high protective tariff and huge treasury surplus of a half billion dollars accumulated since the Civil War. President Cleveland's objective was to lower the tariff. This in turn would discourage Congress from extravagant spending on "plum" political appointments and large pensions paid to Civil War veterans. A tariff reduction would also hopefully bring down the prices on basic commodities. As to the labor unrest, this was a time of the emergence of strong unified labor unions demanding higher wages, and shorter hours, which came into conflict with business owners. As to unscrupulous freight making rates by the western railroads, the Interstate Commerce Act became law in 1887 curbing these blatant abuses.

The tariff was the principle issue of the 1888 political campaign. A bill to lower the tariff 7 to 8 percent passed in the House, but not the Senate. The Republican party led the public to believe that Cleveland, who only wanted to reduce the tariff also favored a free-trade policy which would enable foreign manufacturers to undersell American's costing him the election. Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third President of the United States 1889-1893 undid all that Grover Cleveland had worked for by disposing of the huge Treasury surplus through extravagant appropriations for pensions, naval vessels, lighthouses, coastal defenses, and other projects. The McKinley Tariff Bill was enacted raising already high protective tariffs resulting in higher prices on many household commodities. To gain the support of the western states, six had joined the union (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming) between 1889-1890, the government promised to purchase liberal amounts of mined silver if these Congressmen voted for this legislation. In turn, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 was enacted. The government agreeing to buy 4 1/2 million ounces of silver (nearly the total silver mine output) monthly and issue certificates for the full amounts purchased In 1890. The Sherman Antitrust Act became law declaring illegal "every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade." In reaction, to high consumer prices, the populace elected a Democratic Congress in 1892 and Grover Cleveland as twenty-fourth President of the United States 1893-1897.

The presidential campaign of 1893 saw the emergence of a new political party "The Peoples Party" more familiarly known as "Populists" formed principally by Western farmers and workers who were members of the National Farmers Alliance. Their platform advocated the free unlimited coinage of silver, government ownership of important utilities, and election of U.S. Senators by popular vote. Grover Cleveland's second term of office was marked by conflict between the working classes of the West pitted against bankers, and large manufacturers in the East. Congress passed another high restrictive tariff on foreign goods and the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the unfair tax burden placed on the well-to-do since the Civil War taking more money out of the average working man's pocket. 1

"A bitter political battle was fought over repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890, which required that the U.S. Treasury buy at market value 4,500,000 ounces of silver a month. When by April 15, 1893, the gold reserve in the treasury fell below the $100,000,000 level because silver had been overvalued in relation to gold. President Grove Cleveland and others blamed the Sherman Act for creating too much money. Cleveland called a special session of Congress for Aug. 7, but it was Oct. 30 before both houses of Congress, after much debate, voted repeal. Cleveland was thus able to keep the U.S. on the gold standard, but he alienated members of the Democratic Party who wanted easy credit." 2

"The administration was a period of industrial depression, high prices, unemployment on a large scale, lockouts and strikes. The most important of the last-named was the strike in 1894 of the employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company, who were led by the American Railway Union. The strike to prevent wage cuts, resulted in violence, the destruction of property, and the sending, by President Cleveland, of Federal troops to keep order in Chicago. This resulted in the breaking of the strike by federal injunction, the imprisonment of a number of strike leaders, including the noted labor leader Eugene V. Debs and increasing discontent with the administration on the part of the working classes, particularly the Populists and the radicals among the Democrats." 3

Further adding fuel to the fire of discontent, "A worldwide financial panic began in the spring of 1893. Sensing weakness in the American economy, foreign investors began withdrawing their capital. Railroads began to go into bankruptcy, the steel industry declined and the banking system was strained to the limit ... By December about 600 banks had failed and by June 1894 no fewer than 194 railroads had gone bankrupt. Unemployment climbed, and by the winter of 1893-1894 there were about 2,500,000 persons out of work. Democrats blamed the high tariff and excess government spending on the Republicans. Gold standard advocates blamed the depression on agitation for more and cheaper money. The populists blamed everything on the gold standard and a shortage of currency. The economy gradually improved, but it was 1897 before it could be said that good times had returned." 2

The major issue of the presidential election campaign of 1896 was the "free silver question," (coinage of silver at a fixed ratio to the gold coined during the same period 16-1) which sharply divided the East Vs West. Some favored the unlimited coinage of silver while others favored using the gold standard exclusively. The two candidates for the presidency were William Jennings Bryan endorsed by the Democratic, Populist, Silver Republican, and National Silver Party. It was at the Chicago National Democratic Convention that Bryan delivered his infamous "Cross of Gold" speech, arguing the cause for free silver, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. "William McKinley was endorsed by the Republican Party". It promised to be a memorable fight and not merely a contest between Democrats and Republicans. On one side stood the "gold-bugs," the men of substance in the community, who had made their mark in business and industry and who had no intention of giving ground before the rising tide of Populism. Arrayed against them were the poorer farmers, mill hands, factory workers, single "taxers", and so-called communists. Anarchists, and Socialists, their heads turned by the lure of silver, their spirits keyed up with a sense of mission, working feverishly without plans, without money, without organization. At one time McKinley believed in both silver and gold as the appropriate standard for American money. McKinley changed his views and adopted the cause of a single standard-gold. Republicans went on record as being unalterably opposed to the free coinage of silver and in favor of putting American money on a "sound" basis. In contrast ... the Democratic Party was tom with dissension. It divided fatally on the money question. Some Democrats stood on the conservative side and were as opposed to the free coinage of silver as were Republican conservatives. Others, especially those who came from the South and West had found themselves drawn toward the ideas of the Populists. Every Democrat knew that victory for the party would depend on its ability to profit from agrarian discontent. The future’ of the party was at stake, yet it did not seem likely that any one faction would be able to dominate the others in the interest of party unity. 5

During the presidential campaign of 1896, William Jennings Bryan was the first to campaign extensively by train. "During that race he traveled 18,009 miles by train, making about 3,000 speeches -including 569 major addresses-during the course of dozens of 18 hour days". Sometimes taking side trips by buggy when the train stopped long enough, Bryan made 10 to 20 speeches a day. Bryan's record-24 talks in one day, still stands. In all, Bryan rode for three months in hot wooden coaches and even cabooses to speak to an estimated 5 million people in 27 states. From that very first morning in Nebraska, Bryan hurried to the rear to speak to whatever crowd showed up-and continued speaking until the train eased away. The train crews frequently trotted back to listen until it became necessary to return to their duties ... "Farmers drove horses and buggies up to 100 miles to hear the free-silver advocate. Their wives and daughters brought him home-baked pies and decorated his car with flowers." 6

William Jennings Bryan made a two day whirlwind tour of Western New York in August, 1896 stopping in Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Attica, Homell, Olean, and Celeron. William McKinley however, used a different approach to campaigning. Canton, Ohio became the "Railroad Mecca" of North America as tens of thousands arrived daily by chartered or regular train to hear him speak. "McKinley ran a heavily financed "front porch" campaign. Money was spent lavishly on pamphlets, posters, and buttons. Many state delegations were given train fare to go and see McKinley in Canton. The railroads cooperated by offering reduced rates ... On one day alone, McKinley spoke to some 30,000 Visitors." 7

William McKinley 1890's ©Harry T. See   In total, McKinley made an estimated 300 speeches to 1,000,000 visitors in his home town. As from everywhere else, Western New Yorkers flocked to Canton, Ohio. These included a delegation from Chautauqua and Cattaraugus Counties chartering a 12 car train; over 1,000 real estate men chartering an 18 car train; 150 lumber men from Buffalo and Tonawanda chartering railroad cars as did 75 members of the Buffalo Wheelmens (bicyclists)Club.

William McKinley received 7,035,638 popular votes and 271 electoral votes with William Jennings Bryan receiving 6,467,946 popular votes and 176 electoral votes. The voting was along sectional lines with Bryan carrying most of the South and West. McKinley carried the City of Buffalo, the eight county region of Western New York and New York State as well with about 60% of the popular vote respectively. The election of 1896 remains "critical" because of its lasting import as a milestone in the conflict between agrarian and industrial America. In the presidential election of 1900, William Jennings Bryan squared off against William McKinley the campaign issue being "imperialist expansion" over the U.S. involving the Philippines and Hawaiian Islands. The incumbent was reelected with 7,219,530 popular votes and 292 electoral votes vs. Bryan winning 6,358,071 popular votes and 155 electoral votes. In the City of Buffalo, McKinley garnered 52% of the popular vote and 58t of the popular vote in the Western New York, eight county region. The majority of the voters had spoken and believed that President McKinley had brought economic prosperity to the nation!

William McKinley was born in the semi-frontier community of Niles, Ohio on 1/29/1843 one of 9 siblings to working class parents. His MS. studies at Allegheny College in Meadville, PA. 1860-1861, were cut short by illness. He briefly taught school then enlisted at age 18 in the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War rising through the ranks to 2nd Lieutenant and Brevet Major in 1865 under the command of Rutherford B. Hayes. William McKinley who saw considerable action during the war was committed to preserving the Union; was known as Major McKinley up and until his election to the presidency. Admitted to the Ohio bar in 1867, he practiced in Canton, Ohio. He became quite active in politics serving in the House of Representatives 1877-83,1885-91. During his congressional career, McKinley was elected chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, which developed financial legislation, and he became a prominent national figure. He also worked for civil-service reform and other liberal measures. Later, he was elected twice as Governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893. McKinley married Ida Saxton of Canton, Ohio. The early deaths of their two daughters Katherine 1871-1875 and Ida 1873-1873 plunged her into a nervousness from which she was unable to recover. William McKinley was known for his honesty, toughness, and being able to harmonize divergent views. He also attained national fame as a spokesman for the Republican parties doctrine on tariff protection which he thought would develop and diversify the American economy, create purchasing power among producers, and promote national unity. The one major crisis during his administration was the Spanish-American War. 9

During his administration, William McKinley traveled extensively by train delivering speeches in a number of major cities, to special interest groups and returned to Canton, Ohio for several visits. He also embarked on several extensive train tours visiting the West in 1897, the Trans-Mississippi Expo in Omaha 1898, the South 1898, and New England in 1899. His most ambitious trip to win support for trust busting and for extending commercial reciprocity would be the 1901 Great Circle Tour of the United States. Starting from Washington, DC. through the Deep South, Far West, Pacific Northwest, and Midwest culminating with a visit to the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York on President's Day June 13, 1901.

The President and Mrs. McKinley accompanied by most of his Cabinet, their wives and members of the press-43 in all, would be departing Washington DC. on April 29, 1901 to return on June 15, 1901. "The total distance traveled will be about 10,500 miles, crossing 23 States and 2 Territories, and touching the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Ocean, and the Great Lakes. Twenty-seven railroads are embraced in the itinerary. Wherever feasible the State capitols were visited. Local programs are covering the cities at which extended stops are made. A feature of the trip will be the substitution of drives (short horse & buggy trips) for receptions, thus more fully accommodating the people then would be possible at a short reception. The Reception Committee will be received at the cities they represent the local various committees having cordially cooperated in this respect, as well as in others, in an endeavor to make the journey of the President and his party a most enjoyable and interesting one. While the President may make short addresses at several of the large cities and at some of the colleges and universities, it is not at all likely that he will make as many speeches as have been delivered in the course of previous trips."

The train will go by way of Alexandria, Charlottesville, Lynchburp, Roanoke, Huntsville, Decatur, Tuscumbia, Corinth, Memphis, Vicksburg, Jackson, New Orleans, Houston, Prairie View, Austin, San Antonio, El Paso, Phoenix, Redlands, Eos Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Del Monte, San Jose, Santa Cruz, San Francisco, Palo Alto, Burlingame, Oakland, Ocean Beach, Stockton, Sacramento, Redding, Sisson, Ashland, Salem, Portland, Chehalis, Centralia, Olympia, Tacoma, Seattle, Ellensburg, North Yakima, Pasco, Wallulu, Walla Walla, Spokane, Butte, Helena, Cinnabar, Yellowstone Park, Anaconda, Pocatello, Salt Lake City, Ogden, Glenwood Springs, Royal Gorge, Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Junction City, Topeka, Lawrence, Baldwin, Ottawa, Kansas City, Davenport, Moline, Rock Island, Chicago, Buffalo and Niagara Falls returning to Washington DC. by way of the Delaware Water Gap. Along the way the President also rode a steamboat on the Mississippi, visited an Arizona gold mine and took part in the launching ceremony of a battleship. 10

"The train in which President McKinley and his Cabinet will cross the continent on their travel is a marvel of luxury". It will consist of two sleeping, a dining, and a composite car, consisting of a smoking room and baggage compartment. The President will sleep in the magnificent Pullman "Olympia." A description of this car will fill an Oriental Prince with wonder. It contains five private rooms, finished in Mexican mahogany, maple, and koko. The private dining room, at one end, is furnished in Vermillion. Apartments fit for monarchs are provided for the servants.

Silk, satin, plush and velvet are lavishly used in furniture decoration. Onyx and marble fittings are in evidence. Large mirrors and wardrobes are provided. Each private room contains three complete fittings of a bedroom. All have separate toilet rooms. The car is 70 feet long and is used only for the accommodation of nine persons.

The drawing room car is finished in Vermillion, elaborate carved, and the rooms are decorated in ivory and gold. The ceilings are beautifully tinted and the upholstery and draperies are of the finest. Two staterooms connect with the salon by folding doors. Wide vestibules line the smoking car. There is a fine barbershop in it, and a bathroom, with tiled flooring and wainscoting. The smoking room is 21 feet in length, fitted with upholstered chairs, lounges, secretary, cabinets, and library. A buffet is also provided. The exterior of the train is in keeping with the interior splendor.  11

The Presidential Special sped onward on its transcontinental journey greeted by enthusiastic crowds everywhere. The entire schedule had to be scrapped in California when Mrs. McKinley, an epileptic, began having seizures and was near collapse from blood loss due to an infected finger which first appeared in Texas. A Navy doctor and the family physician lanced the infection aboard the train but she hovered between life and death for the next several weeks. The President canceled all engagements and instead of going back to Washington, DC. They returned to Canton, Ohio for the summer once Mrs. McKinley was able to travel. "The train with the McKinleys using a different private cars departed May 25 and sped across the continent via SP's Central Pacific Line to Ogden, Utah; Union Pacific to Omaha; C&NW to Chicago; and PRR. Virtually all stops were made only for operating reasons; crews were changed a few miles from normal division points to throw off crowds. The original itinerary had called for the tour to end in Buffalo, N.Y., on June 12, after traveling 1,000 miles, but the change necessitated a postponement of that visit until September." 12

1. "United States History." Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, 1970 ed.
2. Carruth, Gorton. "What Happened When" Abridged Edition The Encyclopedia of American Facts, 1991 ed.
3. "United States History." Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia 1970 ed.
5. Smelser, Marshall, and Kerwin, Harry W. Conceived In Liberty: The History of the United States. Garden City Doubleday, 1962.
6. Withers, Bob. The President Travels By Train. Lynchburg: TLC Publishing, 1996.
7. Presidents and Famous Americans. The American Heritage Book 8. New York: Dell Publishing, 1967.
8. The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1989. New York: Scripps Howard, 1989.
Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, November 1, 1900.
9. "William McKinley." Encyclopedia Americana 1996 ed.
10. "Full Itinerary of The President's Trip West." New York Times 4, April 1901
11. "The Presidential Train." New York Times 5 April 1901, p.I.
12. Withers, Bob. The President Travels By Train. Lynchburg, TLC Publishing, 1996.


Chapter II
"Come To The Expo In Buffalo"

    Formally known as the Pan-American Exposition, and informally as the Buffalo Exposition of 1901, it took place between May 1st and November 1st, 1901 in Buffalo, New York. In late November 1896, a request was made to Washington, DC. requesting $500,000 in federal aid money for a proposed exposition. It would be held May 1 through November 1, 1899 in either Niagara Falls, New York or Buffalo, New York celebrating science and civilization and the magnificent achievements of the America's during the 19th century and also the development of hydroelectric power at Niagara Falls. "Progress in Electrical Science." It was envisioned that by 1899, every piece of machinery in manufacturing in Buffalo, Rochester, and surrounding area cities and towns would be powered by electricity. The first transmission of electricity from Niagara Falls to Buffalo occurred in 1896 made possible one of the expo's most exciting exhibits, the demonstration of electricity in daily use. By 1901, electrical engineers had perfected the rheostat, a resistor allowing variable current and dramatic graduations in the power of the lighting.

The certificate of the incorporation of the Pan-American Exposition Company was formally filed with The Erie County Clerk and New York State Secretary of State in Albany on June 25, 1897. The incorporates included the prominent railroad men of the day such as: The honorable Chauncey M. Depew, President of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad (familiarly known as the Central-Hudson Railroad). E.B Thomas, President of the Erie Railroad Company; H. Walter Webb, Vice President NYC&HR Railroad; Edgar Van Etten, General Superintendent NYC&HR Railroad; John M. Brinker, President of Niagara Falls & Lewiston Railroad Company; Fred CM. Lautz, Vice-President of Niagara Falls & Lewiston Railroad Company; J.T. Jones, President Niagara Falls & Suspension Bridge Railroad Company; The Honorable W. Caryl Ely, President of Buffalo & Niagara Falls Electric Railway Company; Burt Van Horn, General Manager of the Buffalo & Niagara Falls Electric Railway Company; Herbert H. Bissell, General Counsel for the Niagara Falls & Lewiston Railway Company and the Buffalo Traction Company. The original exposition site chosen was Cayuga Island, 175 acres of land in the Niagara River along with additional property opposite LaSalle which is at the city line of Niagara Falls, New York. Cayuga Island had been purchased some time ago by Capt. John M. Brinker and Fred C.M. Lautz of Buffalo who were members of the Exposition Company. President William McKinley, visiting Buffalo in August, 1897 as a participant in the Grand Army of the Republic Civil War Union Army Veterans) Encampment drove a ceremonial stake into the ground at the Cayuga Island site. In January 1898 the charter of the exposition company was revised and approved by then New York State Governor Theodore Roosevelt. Buffalo Mayor Diehl immediately set out to secure $500,000 in subscriptions from wealthy Western New Yorkers solicitations continuing until early 1900 to keep the project going. In March, 1898 both New York State and the Federal Government endorsing this project enacted legislation. The outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898 put this ambitious endeavor temporarily on hold. After the Spanish-American War renewed interest in holding the exposition began to increase and there was spirited competition between Niagara Falls and Buffalo for the honor. Buffalo won out because of its population 350,000 and the fact that 40 million people were within one day's journey from Buffalo, the second largest railroad hub in the country. During 1898, the Exposition Company was again reorganized and on May 11, 1899 the Rumsey estate property was acquired and chosen as the Pan-American Exposition site with the formal lease signed on September 5, 1899. The larger Exposition grounds with better accessibility would be located in the northern part of the City of Buffalo adjacent to the large and beautiful Delaware Park. These grounds are about 1 mile in length from north to south from Delaware Park Lake to the Central-Hudson Belt Line Railroad just north of Great Arrow Avenue, and half a mile wide between Delaware Avenue and Elmwood Avenue. There will be 350 acres, including 133 acres of improved parklands and lakes. In 20 months and at a cost of $10 million, the Pan-American Exposition was created with opening day set for May 1, 1901. The Buffalo site was ideal in that trolley lines extended along three sides of the grounds and for 5 cents one could ride to the Exposition from any part in the city, and downtown Buffalo was only 20 minutes away. In addition, the Central-Hudson Railroad brought in Belt Line as well as Excursion trains right up to the station erected on the northern boundary of the grounds.

Other notable exhibitions were held in the United States during the 19th century and included the "Centennial Exhibition" Philadelphia, 1876; "World Colombian Exposition," Chicago, 1893, Cotton Exposition," Atlanta, 1895; "Trans-Mississippi Exposition" Omaha, 1893. The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 would usher in the new 20th century and its technical marvels. To get an idea of the size of the Pan-American Exposition in relation to the afore mentioned, The 1893 World Colombian Exposition had attracted 60,000 exhibitors and 27 million visitors. The Pan-American Exhibition would attract 3,500 exhibitors and 8 million visitors, still impressive no matter how you look at it.  13

In 1901, an estimated 40 million people lived within a 12 hour train ride from the Niagara Frontier. "Buffalo has a population of 352,219 (12th census) and it ranks as the fourth largest shipping center in the world. The acreage of the City is 25,343 1/2. It is a great commercial gateway between the east and the west It is the principle Eastern port for the commerce of the Great Lakes and no other city on earth receives such a volume of grain as Buffalo. With her 41 elevators and a capacity of 20,000,000 bushels, nearly 200,000,000 bushels of grain are handled annually. Over 1,000,000 barrels of flour were manufactured in 1899. The coal receipts of 1899 amounted to over 3,000,000 tons, most of which was sent westward by water The lumber receipts of 1899 were 230,000,000 feet ... The manufacturers of Buffalo number some 3,500 with over 100,000 operatives. Buffalo can also boast of 200 miles of street railways, with 100 miles of suburban lines. 4,141 vessels arrived in 1899 at the Port of Buffalo. 28 railroads enter the city; 250 passenger trains daily; nearly 700 miles of railroad trackage within the city limits. Buffalo in 1901 can boast of 9 theaters, 3 libraries, 24 banks, 60 public schools, 187 churches of all faiths, 1,025 acres of public parks, and the largest coal trestle in the world, and the longest breakwater in the world. Lastly, while Buffalo still had in 1901, 104 3/4 miles of stone streets and 7 1/2 miles of brick streets, it could boast of 223 miles of asphalt which was more than Paris, Washington, London or any other city in the world.  14

As early as late 1899, artist sketches of the major buildings to be erected on the exposition site were profusely illustrated in Buffalo's newspapers to stir the imagination of wonders yet to come! A large billboard measuring 16 x 70 feet was placed along the Niagara River for water and railroad passengers to see which proudly proclaimed  "PAN AMERICAN EXPOSITION, BUFFALO 1901."   This was one of the largest billboards in the United States.

PanAm 2 Cent Stamp 1901    In commemoration of the Pan-American Exposition, the United States Post Office issued a set of five stamps engraved by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Depicted on the 1-cent was Fast Lake Navigation, 2-cent NYC&HR "Empire State Express," 4-cent Automobile, 5-cent Bridge at Niagara Falls, and 10-cent Fast Ocean Navigation.

"The Pan-American Exposition was called the "Rainbow City." Upon entering the grounds, the visitor was treated to the sight of splendid domes, attractive minarets, towers and pavilions glowing with pleasing hues, tints, regal statues (some 500 sculptures of which 125 were original works), and buildings containing exhibits from all parts of the Western Hemisphere.

The general plan of the grounds was that of an inverted "T" with the cross arm being the Esplanade extending east and west, and the cross arm terminating at the Propylaea. The Court of Fountains is in the center of the vertical stem and starting from its four comers was the beginning of the main group of large buildings. The most prominent of these was the Electric Tower, which rose to a height of 391 feet. It was said that the Electric Tower could be seen from downtown Buffalo."  15

"The Tower of Light was a steel supported building. An elevator took visitors up 252 feet to the colonnade near the top of the tower. From here a spiral staircase led the venturesome to the cupola, on which rested a 16-foot high gilded, nude, running figure of the Goddess of Light holding a torch aloft ... A large restaurant occupied a floor seventy-five feet above ground level. It also provided access to the pretty roof gardens atop the curving colonnades flanking the base of the tower. Five or six stories above the restaurant and below the cupola and the upper colonnade a richly ornamental loggia extended across each side of the tower. It offered a splendid view of the grounds."  15a

"Perhaps the most unusual aspect of the Pan-Am was the color scheme of the buildings. In previous expositions, the main feature had always been architecture but not color. The Pan-Am attempted to appease both. Imagine seeing colossal buildings colored in hues of red, blue, green and gold's. The Electric Tower was deep green, with details of cream with blue and gold! Now you can see where the name "Rainbow City" came from.

Since the Pan-American Exposition was a celebration of electricity, it was only fitting that the promoters of the Pan-Am would outdo themselves when it came time to see it at night. Drawing its power from Niagara Falls, at dusk 240,000 eight watt bulbs came on at once, not in a brilliant flash of light, but in gradual increases in brightness until every building was adorned in a bath of light. The Electric Tower alone was studded with 4,400 lights and on top of the structure was a powerful searchlight that was seen from Niagara Falls and Canada.

The architecture of the Pan-Am was a free treatment of the Spanish Renaissance style compliment to the Latin American countries represented at the fair. Columns were used for decorative, rather than architectural effects, and each building is rich with the use of balconies, loggias, towers, and minarets.

One very important architectural note needs to be made clear; none of the buildings at the Pan-Am with the exception of the New York State Building, were built to be a permanent structure... 95% of the buildings were made of chicken wire with wood frames and a base coat of plaster! Each rainfall would cause buildings to decay a little more, so you can imaging the problems the Pan-Am directors had with 1901 being one of the wettest summers Buffalo ever had".  15

Other notable features of the Pan-American Exposition besides the Triumphal Bridge over the Grand Canal included the following buildings: US Government, Dept. of Agriculture, Horticulture, Graphic Arts, Mines Building, Court of Fountains, Ethnology, Temple of Music, Machinery and Transportation, Manufactures and Liberal Art, Electricity, Art, and Stadium. States and Foreign Nations buildings included New York State, New England, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, Illinois, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, Honduras, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Women's, Forestry, Dairy, and Hospital.

An exposition would not be complete without a Midway, which would offer some 40 attractions. Beside the rides, animals, bazaar, and restaurants, one could take a Trip to the Moon, go inside the House Upside Down, see a Colorado gold mine, glass factory, motion pictures and pictorials of Cleopatra, the Pall of Babylon, and the Johnstown Flood among other things.

The Machinery and Transportation Building (illustrated, next page) costing $265,000 to build exhibited all the latest developments in automobiles, locomotives, railroad cars and equipment. This enormous edifice was 350 x 500 feet with its long side facing the Court of Fountains. Its highest tower was 170 feet above the Grounds. The cement walls were tinted in reds and yellow's atop which was typical red Spanish mission tile.

Seven mammoth steam locomotives were on display from Baldwin, Schenectady, and Brooks built for the New York Central, Michigan Central, Lehigh Valley, Buffalo & Susquehanna, Jersey Central and Illinois Central railroads. Also on display were couplers, velocipedes, wheel assemblies, and a display by the American Bridge Company. There were trolley cars, a Railway Post Office Car, 5 freight cars, which included box, gondola, coal and flat cars. Visitors were fascinated as coal was hoisted, sorted and loaded. The DL&W had a passenger coach on display and the Grand Trunk Railroad provided photos and a mural of scenic views along its lines. There were undoubtedly other railroad-related displays that were not recorded in Buffalo's newspapers.

The Pan-American Bureau of Transportation was established under the direction of W. Caryl Ely to ensure that freight and passengers to and from the exposition were adequately served. A newspaper article in the 11/1 1/99 issue of the Buffalo Morning Express talked of building a switch off the NYC&HR Belt Line and digging shallow trenches in which track would be laid to the major buildings to bring in building construction supplies and exhibits without transshipment. During the Exposition the trenches would be covered by asphalt and dug out after the close for dismantling the structures and moving out the exhibits. The trains were to be pulled by either a small steam engine or overhead trolley type catenary system that would be dismantled. It's unknown which method was selected. Entrance gates to the grounds were located at West Amherst, Elmwood, Lincoln, Water Gate, Meadow, East Amherst, and the railroad station constructed by the NYC&HR at the northern perimeter on the Belt Line. Fair goers arriving by trolley boarded cars designated "Direct To the Pan-American" on the Niagara, West Grant, Baynes & Hoyt, Elmwood and Main Street Lines. Admission was 50 cents on weekdays and 25 cents on Sunday. Originally the Exposition was to be closed in observance of the Sabbath, but it was decide to open the gates although the Midway was closed and sales of articles were prohibited. Sunday hours were restricted to between 1 PM. and 11 PM. while normal weekday hours began at 8:30 A.M.

The railroads serving Buffalo were determined to bring in visitors to Buffalo and the Exposition. In 1893, high and inflexible passenger rates for several months kept tens of thousands from taking the train to Chicago. Buffalo's railroad management brought in newspapermen from other cities to tour the grounds and report back their experiences. Officials from railroads not directly serving Buffalo were also brought in so that they could advertise the Exposition from distant points. Experimental fares were experimented with on different levels of service coach vs. Pullman in the name of attracting ridership and making money.

In March of 1901, the NYC&HR railroad proposed that a switch be built at the Terrace Station in downtown Buffalo to bring through trains directly to the exposition grounds which would allow for locomotive run-around. Belt Line trains running the loop every few minutes could not handle the additional traffic which would bring absolute chaos to the Exchange Street Depot. The only drawback was that out of town excursionists would completely bypass downtown Buffalo. This did not sit to well with the merchants. The railroad wanted to avert massive confusion and dangerous conditions as in addition to the multitude of daily scheduled trains, there would be excursion specials diverging on Exchange Street from all directions.

By April 1901, Pan-American Exposition officials were getting nervous as opening day was a month away and much needed to be accomplished including road paving, building construction and landscaping. The 5,000 men work force was doubled to 10,000 who would labor seven days a week and around the clock. The railroads announced an experimental May only, 1/3 round trip fare good for 15 days. Every Tuesday, a round trip was offered at 1 regular fare plus $1.00 with a five-day stopover. Special fares would be in effect on May 15 and May 20 (Official Dedication Day). These coach excursions, good for a 3-day stopover were sold at 1 cent a mile. The Wabash Railroad which had an interest in reaching the Buffalo and Pittsburgh directly over its own rails. Since having Grand Trunk Railroad trackage rights into Buffalo since 1897, it started a price war by charging a less than standard agreed upon, or "differential rate" with its competitors serving Kansas City. The Wabash was the most direct route from Kansas City to Buffalo. The railroads in anticipation of huge crowds hired extra staff in all areas of their passenger departments. Already there were ticket scalpers who were trying to make a fast buck at the expense of the railroads and anti-scalping measures were being considered by the Legislature in Albany by New York Governor, O'Dell.

13. Paton J Ian "Did Technologies Stand the Test of Time." The American Philatelist Dec. 1994
14. Pan-American Exposition Four Track Series #15, New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, 1901
15. Heverin, Aaron T." "The Pan-American Exposition"   Internet
15A. Austin M. Fox, Symbol & Show. The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 Buffalo: Meyer Enterprises, 1987


Spring and Summer 1901 at the Exposition

        The railroads in their wisdom and planning did their utmost to see that the Exposition would be a huge success and began implementing physical changes as early as 1897 for this event. The fruits of their efforts did not go unnoticed up to and between May and October 1901. These improvements and the successful movement of tens of thousands of people in and out of Buffalo will be discussed later. For now, its sufficient to say that as the Exposition drew closer, the railroads announced (for one month only) May 1901, a 1 1/3 round trip fare good for fifteen days. Every Tuesday, a round trip fare was offered at I fare plus $1.00 with a five day stopover. Special fares would be in effect on May 15th and 20th. These coach excursions good for 3 days stopover were sold at 1 cent a mile. The Wabash Railroad which first entered Buffalo in 1897 over the Grand Trunk Railroad and was the shortest direct route to Kansas City started a price war with its western competitors via Chicago by charging a less then standard agreed upon or "differential rate." The railroads in anticipation of huge crowds hired extra staff in all areas of their passenger departments. Already, there were enterprising ticket scalpers out to make a fast buck at the railroads expense and an anti-scalping bill was being considered in Albany by the Legislature and Governor O'Dell.

May 1, 1901 the Pan American Exposition had its inaugural opening to the general public. All of Buffalo's leading newspapers gave quite lengthy accounts of this historic event, but the New York Times of May 2, 1901 summed it up! Quoting verbatim, "A beautiful electrical display to-night was the culmination event of the opening day of the Pan-American Exposition. The attendance this morning was small owing to the threatening weather, which kept away many form near-by towns. Later in the day when the sun broke through the gray clouds the crowd began to assume the proportions of an exposition throng and to-night thousands passed through the turnstiles.

The gates were open this morning without ceremony, the opening day celebration having been postponed until May 20, when they will be combined with dedication day ceremonies.

The following congratulatory telegraphic message received from President McKinley's Secretary (while on his cross-country train tour)

read: MEMPHIS, TENN., May 1st The President directs me to convey his congratulations to the citizens of Buffalo upon the auspicious opening of the Pan-American Exposition so rich in blossom and ripe in expectations. May the hopes and ambitions of its promoters be realized to the fullest measure. By direction of the President. GEORGE B. CORTELYOU

US. Dept of Agriculture Building - photo courtesy www.panam1901.bfn.orgThe Government Building was formally opened this afternoon. General J. H. Brigham, Chairman of the Government Board, in a brief address, declared the Government's exhibit the most complete of any presented to the people of the United States. The different departments, he said, had worked with the object in view of giving to the people of the country the best possible conception of the work and achievement of the several branches of the Government. This was to demonstrate to the people, how faithfully, and efficiently their work was being done.

President John G. Milburn of the Pan-American Exposition Company thanked the Government board for its efficient and faithful work, which resulted in such an exhibition of the Nation's resources. No building, he said, is receiving so much praise as the Government Building, and its exhibit is the most perfect, complete, and thorough ever made. Mayor Conrad Diehl, on behalf of the city, thanked the Government board for its work and extended a hearty welcome to the city. The heads of the various departments then explained and demonstrated their exhibits.

In the Government Building, the visitors found the Smithsonian Institutions exhibit as well as those of the National Museum, the Interior Department, the Navy Department, the Treasury Department, the Post Office Department, the Fish Commission, and the Philippines exhibit. All were practically complete in detail and the other departments not far behind.

At 2 o'clock forty-five aerial bombs were fired, one in honor of each State of the Union. At the same time, the flags of all the buildings were unfurled in the breeze. The Stars and Stripes, the Pan-American flag, with its yellow sun and golden eagle, the flags of countries south, the green pine tree of Ecuador, the spangled banner of Bolivia, and the flaunting red and green flag of Argentina. All floating from tower and spire added a new glory to the already beautiful sight. The highest towers of the Agricultural Building had the United States colors.

On the four corners of the Electricity Building were the flags of the Western colonial powers; England, France, Holland, and Denmark, with the flags of their dependencies grouped around them. The Stadium was ablaze with colors.

At 3 o'clock 3,500 homing pigeons were released. Frank W. Converse, head of the livestock and agricultural department of the fair, had charge of the birds, which will carry the news of the opening of the exposition to distant States. The message is a brief greeting signed by Pan American Exposition Director-General William I. Buchanan. Band concerts given by the Sixty-fifth and Seventy-fourth regiment bands rounded out the afternoon." 21

Formal dedication and official grand opening of the Pan American Exposition would take place on May 20, 1901 when all construction and displays would be completely finished. It was reported in the New York Times of May llth, "To the visitor during these early days of the Pan-American Exposition it appears that the electric illuminations will form one of the most prominent features of the big show. In preparation for the dedication day ceremonies a thorough test has been made during the past week of the illumination system on the grounds and in the buildings, and the extraordinary effects have provoked unbounded enthusiasm on the part of the spectators.

For these tests the lights were turned on at their full brilliancy, but during the exposition the current will pass through a rheostat, and the lamps will gradually grow from nothingness to the climax of their glory. It is probable that there has never been an exposition where the illumination per square foot was so great or where the illumination has covered such a large area of space. Messages from Niagara Falls, Lockport, Tonawanda, and numerous villages within a radius of fifty miles from Buffalo state that the electric tower under illumination is visible at those places." 22

During the duration of the Exposition there would be band concerts throughout the summer, an ongoing series of flower shows in the Horticulture Building featuring certain flower varieties during a given week and there would be Pan American Intercollegiate Athletic Championships May 31st and June 1st. There would also be days dedicated specifically to organizations, states, county municipalities, and ethnic groups.

"One of the novel features of the U.S. Navy exhibit at the exposition is a large map of the world, 8 by 16 feet, on which are placed models of every ship in the navy. Each day, as telegraphic notification is received of the exact location of each vessel, the models are moved about the map in accordance with this information, so that the visitors may see just where every vessel of the navy is." 23

May 20, 1901 had arrived; it was now time for the big extravaganza to begin in earnest! A spectacle that has never been equaled in the history of Buffalo! Congratulatory telegrams and cablegrams were received last night and today by Pan-American Exposition Director-General William I. Buchanan from the heads of states of North, Central, and South American nations including the following: San Francisco, May 20, 1901. Fellow-citizens of the United States and fellow-Americans from all our neighbor nations: I send you greetings from the shores of the Pacific.. with fervent prayers for the benediction of heaven upon this beneficial enterprise, with sincere congratulations to all those whose energy and devotion have brought it to pass, and with heartfelt welcome to our guests from our sister republics, to whom we wish continued and abundant prosperity. May there be no cloud upon this grand festival of trade and commerce, no thought of rivalry except that generous competition in useful arts and industries which benefit all.

I earnestly hope that this great exhibition may prove a blessing to every country of this hemisphere, and even that the world at large may profit by the progress of which we give proof, by the lesson of our efforts and their results. I trust that it may become evident before this exhibition closes, that our vast and increasing prosperity is fruitful of nothing but good to our elders in the brotherhood of nations. And that our onward march may forever exemplifies the divine sentiment of "Peace on earth and good will to men": William McKinley

The following descriptive, some verbatim, was taken from the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser of May 20, 1901. As Buffalonians awoke that day the sky was very overcast and foreboding, threatening a downpour at any moment. The clouds began to gradually dissipate, and by 10 am when the grand pageant got under way the sun was smiling on the Queen City. Grand Marshall Louis L. Babcock signaled for the parade to begin with the appearance in a carriage of U.S. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt and John G. Milburn, President of the Pan-American Exposition Company. The troops would be reviewed by the Vice President, their swords "presented" and their guns at "present arms" prior to the Vice President's carriage later joining the procession at 10:23 AM. Martial music was heard, and at 10:10am the parade beginning on the Franklin Street side of City Hall (Old County Hall) began. Proceeding up Seneca Street, to Main St. to Chippewa St. and then down tree lined Delaware Avenue. Its elms and maples arching over the heads of the passing line toward the Exposition grounds. "Its residents chorusing applause from the windows and verandas of their beautiful homes." There were mounted patrolmen followed by several regiments of both the U.S. regular army. Next came the Mexican band leading the Mexican troops and Mexican Calgary followed by the carriages containing federal and state dignitaries including the Vice President. More carriages with members of the Louisiana Purchase Commission, Pan-American Exposition officials, city and county officials and scores of invited guests followed these. They came to see Theodore Roosevelt the idolized American, Spanish-American War Rough Rider, former New York State Governor and now Vice President. As the parade-entered Main St. he was quickly recognized and "the tumultuous shout that rose from the multitude showed it plainly. Garbed in his plain clothes, his silk hat stood up in the carriage. (This he did many times along the route). He received the applause with the smile and bow that have made him famous, acknowledged it with the grace born of long years of public life: with the debonair manner of a man who was accustomed to the plaudits of a nation". Last night at 8pm, the vice-president, his wife and daughter and others in his party had arrived by train over the DL&W from New York City to a rousing gathering of well wishers at the depot.

Proceeding up Main Street, "The pavement, swept as clean as a kitchen floor", stretched out like a furrow. It was a clean, straight line, edged with gayly clad people, who waved handkerchiefs and hands and hats. The enthusiastic people crowded down to the very edge of the sidewalks and stood obliquely so that not an inch of space might be lost. The children were nearest the curb; next came the older folks, back of them on chairs, on steps, in windows, on roofs. It was like a cascade of people rising from the level of the pavement, where sat little tots hardly large enough to walk, to the roof peaks, where there were some venturesome youths. Buffalo streets have had many vast throngs, but none quite so compact and great as the one that filled them this morning.

And the buildings! They were gorgeous. Flags, streamers, draperies, bunting-fabrics of every kind floated from windows, flapped jauntily from mastheads, waved from building peaks. In front of the William Hengerer Company's store there was a big rosette woven in the facade, a rosette of many colors; and surrounding it were flags and bunting ... The Massive Ellicott Square building, seemed a flutter with flags enough to float it off into space. Its portico was filled with a brilliant sign reading: "'Peace and Prosperity to Pan-Americas". The American Express Company was decorated with the flags of all the nations of North, South and Central America ... The tall, stately Prudential Building waving a myriad of gay colorings to the cavalcade... The Meldrum & Anderson Company waved a thousand flags and across the street the J.N. Adam & Co. and the Mooney-Brisbane building looked resplendent in the attire of bunting and flags ... The Erie County Savings Bank draped in beautiful colors...Other large and a hundred smaller structures were gay with little and big flags." 23

Next at 11am, came the Midway parade along the same route, a glorious panorama of colors and surprises. By now, the crowds had begun to spill out into the streets, and it took the police about ten minutes to reform the line along the curb. "It led off with Frederick T. Cummins, the grand marshall on a horse, and wound up with a sod house on wheels, and in between there were all the contrasts and varieties that the peoples and beasts of strange lands could possibly provide." There were native Americans in gaily colored garments, toreadors, Mexican ladies, rancheros, the miniature railway and Chiquita floats, gypsies, elephants, zebras, a caged lion, stag hunters, the Royal Bavarian Band, dragoon guards, cross-bowmen, peasants, singers and dancers, market people, the Cleopatra float, "mounted on the throne of an immense float drawn by a score of slaves who were dressed in the picturesque fashion of the east." Japanese Geisha girls, swordsman and wrestlers, Next came the Eskimo float, the men an women dressed in furs, Bringing up the rear were camels and donkeys accompanied by Turks, Bedouins, Nubians, Egyptians, and Moors. "After them came a number of wagons bearing exhibits from different concessions, popcorn, peanuts, drinks, etc., the Midway Boys Zobo band and other lesser features, all extending the line. It was 11:40 when the end of the parade passed the Iroquois Hotel and the streetcars (a long northbound line which had been detained) were allowed to proceed on their way. Most of them were crowded to the lowest step with men, women and children anxious to get to the grounds."  24

Meanwhile, back at the Pan-American Exposition grounds, at 9 AM, kites were sent up into a west wind bearing them against the Temple of Music. At 9:30 the first American flag went up. Two hundred red, white, and blue flags would be in the air. By noon, at the conclusion, a 60-foot shield bearing the figure of an eagle was sent up.

"At 2 o'clock in the afternoon, the attendance at the exposition grounds was variously estimated at from 75,000 to 125,000. It would probably not be an exaggeration to say that at that hour fully 100,000 persons were within the gates. And the best of it was that there were solid streams of people crowding for admission at every one of the entrances, and not a ghost of a sign that the flood of newcomers would diminish during the afternoon. The exposition officials were overjoyed at the prospects. They were confident that the 200,000 mark, which had been fixed as the maximum limit of attendance, not only would be reached, but that it would be surpassed by possibly 50,000...

It was estimated at 11 o'clock in the morning that 20,000 persons had passed through the gates. From 11 o'clock until noon ... Early in the afternoon, the crowds of new arrivals increased rapidly until the ticket sellers, who were laboring in their shirtsleeves, were overpowered. It was simply impossible to hand out the tickets and work the turnstiles fast enough to keep up with the swelling throngs on the outside. That was the situation at every entrance. As the afternoon wore on, the crowds kept increasing. Every car from the downtown section of the city reached the terminals packed to the platforms.

Inside the exposition grounds the scenes were Almost animated. Every exposition street was well filled the mall and courts were crowded, and the throngs in the midway were so dense that it was almost impossible to shoulder one's way through them. The concessionaires were happy for the money was pouring in as fast as they could handle it. All the exhibit buildings were crowded, and there was a big overflow into the park.

Just at the stroke of 12 o'clock noon the triumphal procession reached the objective point, the Esplanade. As the marchers halted, thousands upon thousands of pigeons rose from in front of the electric fountain and flew towards the Temple of Music. Kites were also soaring in the air and for a few moments the guests gazed with admiration upon the sight and then turned to enter the Temple of Music.

At 12:15 o'clock vice-president Roosevelt escorted by president Milburn, passed up the aisle toward the platform reserved for active participants in the ceremonies and the guests...All were greeted with enthusiastic rounds of applause from all parts of the auditorium. The galleries of the temple were open to the public long enough for all those sets to be filled, after which the doors were closed by the police.

When the guests had been seated and the applause had subsided, the eventful ceremonies began with Handells "'Hallelujah"' by the 71st regiment band." 25

The program order followed with an opening prayer by Rev.C.H. Fowler, DD.Bishop of the M.E. Church; an address by Buffalo Mayor, Conrad Diehl; and a poem written by Robert Cameron Rogers. "Salve Libertasu-Sturm by Buffalo Orpheus and Orchestra; address by the Honorable Theodore Roosevelt; Music; address by the Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts; poem by Frederick Almy; address by New York Lieutenant Governor Honorable Timothy L. Woodruff; and the singing of "America" by the audience accompanied by the band. Bishop William D. Walker pronounced the benediction and the hall was cleared to the strains of a March.

"At the conclusion of the exercises in the Temple of Music there was grand display of day fireworks on the Esplanade and about the Court of Fountains. The feature tonight was the electrical show. Many of those who came during the day dined at the grounds and joined in the night crowd. The Electrical Tower was a dazzling of light, and the play of the lights on the fountains below produced some beautiful effects." 26

As for the railroads, "The number of exposition visitors brought into the city by the railroads this morning was close upon 10,000. The New York Central and West Shore Roads had a dozen special trains from points west of Syracuse. The Grand Trunk system had seven special trains, and the Michigan Central three special trains from Canadian points. The Lake Shore Road had a special of 14 cars from Dunkirk to bring in the employees of the Brooks Locomotive Works. All the other roads had extra cars on the regular trains. and all the specials and regular trains were crowded. The Akron route train, made up of seven cars, arrived with the seats full and the aisles crowded. On nearly all the roads, extra stops were made by through trains to accommodate the people who wished to arrive in the city early to see the parade.

The International Traction Company had a five-minute service in and out of the city. All morning there was a five-minute service between Niagara Falls and Buffalo and a thirty-minute service and extra cars between Lockport and Buffalo. The traffic was very heavy. In the city over 600 cars were in service for that day.

The Belt Line service for the day was made practically continuous to meet the enormous demand for transportation to the grounds.

The great bulk of the people brought to the city were taken direct to the terminal stations at the exposition grounds, and will take the trains from there when leaving for their homes this evening. The terminal facilities were well tested, and it is now confidently expected that they will meet the requirements for the summer business.

The head officials or the transportation departments or the leading roads centering in Buffalo, were in the city early in the morning to get ideas of the volume or traffic that will have to be handled this summer for this point. The Canadian roads were alone in giving special low rates. The other roads giving only the excursion rates, agreed upon for Tuesday or each weekend during May. The immense crowds attracted by the excursion rates proved to the officials that special low rates will not be required at any time during the summer to make the exposition business most profitable.  27

21. "Pan-American Exposition" The New York Times. 2 May, 1901
22. "Features At the Pan-American Show" "New York Times" 2, May, 1901
23. "Grand Pageant" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 20 May, 1901
24. "Concessionaires" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 20 May, 1901
25. "Immense Throng" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 20 May, 1901
26. "Ceremonies" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 20 May, 1901
27. "On the Railroads" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 20 May, 1901



          In 1901, the major mode of travel if you had to cover a great distance was the railroad or by steamboat. That new tangle contraption the automobile or horseless carriage which came into being in the United States in the early 1890's would not as yet be owned by the masses. If you traveled locally, it was either by foot, horse, wagon, buggy or streetcar.

The Pan-American Exposition to be a success had to attract visitors from the four comers of the U.S., Canada, Central and South America and the world!

By now, with the World Colombian Exposition (I 893) and the Trans-Mississippi Exposition (I 898) relegated to history, the railroads learned from their past successes and mistakes how to prepare for and make the Pan-American Exposition the best world's fair ever.

As, early as January, 1898 the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad announced improvements to the LaSalle Street Station in Chicago which included a new elaborate long train shed that included additional tracks and switches to handle both anticipated passenger traffic and movement of exhibit materials.

During 1898, work was progressing on securing funding for the exposition, recognition by New York State and the Federal Government, and looking over a number of proposed sites. All this and a host of other problems, which had to be resolved, even while the Spanish-American War was in progress.

As with any major event, you have to advertise. Initially organized in April, 1899, the Pan-Am Publicity Committee by September, 1900, had already 40 people employed full time sending out advertisements to newspapers, periodicals, and also creating pamphlets and posters which were sent to every State in the Union and Province of Canada. The railroads and steamboat lines also would do extensive advertising in all their publications.

Not to overlook the steamboat lines, the Detroit and Cleveland Line announced that their steamers "City of Alpena" and "City of MacKinac" would be lengthened 50 feet over the winter. It should be noted that in October, 1899 Buffalo Merchant's Exchange excursionists returning from Duluth aboard the steamship "Northwest" threw 8 bottles into the various Great Lakes containing the following message "To the Finder-The Pan-American Exposition is to be held at Buffalo, NY from May 1st to October 31st, 1901. Its chief purpose will be to show the commercial progress of the republics of the Western Hemisphere. It will be larger and more beautiful then the World's Fair or Paris Exposition, and no one can afford to miss it. From May I to October 31, 1901, all roads lead to Buffalo. Asked to be dropped off there.

It may to be your advantage to send this note to the Pan-American Exposition Company at Buffalo, NY with a report of the circumstances of your finding it. Also please notify the newspapers of your town and city." 28

To get people to travel to the Exposition, a major concern was the price of a ticket to get there. While the steamboat lines agreed to reduce their transportation rates as early as 1899, the major trunk line railroads and various regional traffic associations would be haggling over this with The Pan-American Exposition Company right up to opening day and well into the summer of 1901. Railroads did not officially get involved with the Pan-American until early 1899 with the problem of site selection. The leading location was "The Front" or Front Park which included land and waterfront. The major obstacle was the New York Central & Hudson River Railroads Belt Line which would go right through the fairgrounds at grade. Not only were there over a hundred trains a day, but visitors would have to contend with whistles, bells, and smoke from locomotives. This would never be acceptable.

In May 1898 the "Wilgus Plan" was presented by NYC&HR Chief Civil Engineer William J. Wilgus, proposing that the Belt Line tracks between Hudson Street and Porter Avenue be temporarily elevated at a cost of between $60,000 and $120,000. This depended upon if a wooden trestle, or one of concrete facades, to blend in with the exposition grounds and buildings allowing for free unimpeded passage by pedestrians. The railroad would not blow whistles or ring bells when passing over this site and would use anthracite instead of soft coal to lessen the smoke. The other alternative was to relocate the railroad tracks. All costs would be born by the City of Buffalo and the Pan American Exposition Company. A permanent elevated structure could run up to $429,000. 29 Fortunately, the Rumsey Site where the exposition would be held was chosen in May, 1898 and the depot placed on the inside of the northern segment of the Belt Line. To allow access into the exposition grounds by other major railroads, "The Central agreed in June, 1899 to have two tracks laid along its right of way besides the American Radiator Works, the tracks to be used by the Erie, Lackawanna, Lehigh Valley and others in approaching the grounds. Both the Erie and Lackawanna railroad tracks being north of the Central tracks. Halfway between Elmwood Avenue and Delaware Avenue there will be an overhead crossing or subway for these tracks to get to the grounds without a grade crossing. 30

When In Doubt, Check the Map - People at the Pan-American, © sketch by Mildred C. Green - Express-June 16, 1901The depot site was now established with connecting railroad. Access events would be unfolding at a steady pace over the next two years until opening day on May 1, 1901. In June, 1899 the Cotton Belt Railroad sent in the first bid for 2,500 feet of exhibition space. August, 1899, Chief Engineer Wilgus proposed that the Terminal Station have 14 tracks for use by all railroads and a station exhibit floor area of 15,000 feet. By November of 1899, all but two trunk line railroads have signed an agreement to allow all exhibits to be returned to point of origin free of charge provided that applicable tariff rate was paid to exposition from point of origin and no change of owner. Temporary rails will be laid in the pavement from the Belt Line tracks to the various buildings to bring in exhibits. These tracks will be covered over, and then uncovered at end of the exposition.

Events were now rapidly unfolding as we begin 1900 and the countdown to May 1, 1901. Herewith is a chronology of important railroad events:

APRIL, 1900

Buffalo Street Railway Company request permission from Buffalo Common Council to lay a third track on the east side of Main Street, between Seneca and North Division Streets to properly handle Pan-American crowds.

The Pullman Palace Car Company is making preparations to send an exhibit of their Palace Cars to the Pan-American Exposition.

MAY, 1900

International Traction Company, New York Central, West Shore, Lake Shore, Michigan Central, Nickel Plate, DL&W, Erie, Grand Trunk, Pennsylvania subscribe $290,000 into Pan-Am Exposition Stock.

AUGUST, 1900

Buffalo Street Railway Company begins laying tracks at southwest comer of Elmwood Avenue and Amherst Street to hold between 200 and 300 empty trolley cars during the Exposition.

Nearly 300 members of National Association of Railway Passenger Agents to meet in Buffalo in October. They will be appealed to for low passenger rates to the Exposition to encourage travelers.


Large Contingent OF DL&W Traffic Department officials from all points on railroad tour exposition grounds and prepare for large scale advertising campaign.


Annual national meeting of American Association of General Passenger and Ticket Agents held in Buffalo. Representatives and families from U.S., Canada, and Mexico.

One million labels, Pan-American official logo, to be applied on express parcels by United States Express Company at all stations nationwide.

New York Central proposes that a new and larger depot be built at Terrace Street to relieve anticipated Congested at Exchange Street. Crosstown Street Railway Company at own expense is granted permission by Buffalo Common Council to lay temporary tracks on several streets in North Buffalo to handle additional traffic.

New York Central and Erie Railroads agree on joint construction and use of terminal facilities on Exposition grounds. 9 tracks with platforms will be built by Exposition costing around 25,000. 31

New York Central booms the fair. Publishes "Four Track Series" Pan American Express. 15

Lehigh Valley Railroad spending about $50,000 by replacing old freight shed with a new larger one, and extending Scott Street station and laying additional tracks.


Erie Railroad Station at Michigan and Exchange Streets to received $55,000 facelift. Newly remodeled enlarged ticket office and waiting room, baggage and express area, and two newly built platforms under awnings with relaid tracks.

Nickel Plate Road orders 20 passenger coaches and 12 new locomotives costing $275,000 combined. All wooden bridges along the line are being replaced by steel, and a new steel bridge over 18 Mile Creek is being jointly built with Pennsylvania Railroad.


Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway traffic department officials visit Exposition grounds. Missouri Pacific and Illinois Central Railroads to promote Pan-American Exposition with advertisements in their travel folders.

Pennsylvania Railroad civil engineers making preliminary assessments on grade elimination and curve reductions along Buffalo and Allegheny Divisions.

Nickel Plate Road passenger agents visit Buffalo and Exposition.


Grand Trunk Railroad officials visit Exposition grounds. Will heavily promote one-day excursions from throughout Ontario.

Pennsylvania Railroad to inaugurate two solid vestibule trains daily from Philadelphia to Buffalo beginning in February.

Belt Line trains to operate at 5-minute intervals during Exposition.

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad will be running two trains daily from Pittsburgh via Ashtabula and Erie via the Nickel Plate.


Joint freight agent office established with headquarters temporarily in Transportation Building.

Grand Trunk Railroad putting on two new passenger trains between New York City and Chicago.

MARCH, 1901

Empire State Express to operate in two sections. The second section stopping only at Albany with passengers bound for Buffalo.

Pittsburgh, Bessemer & Lake Erie to reach Buffalo by way of Pittsburgh & Western Railroad and the Nickel Plate.

New York Central to run trains direct to Exposition by way of Terrace Street temporary switch track for back and forth operation every 5 minutes instead of around the city. Long distance excursion trains will bypass downtown Buffalo. Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo threatens lawsuit over Terrace Street center property line. Diocese purchased property for cathedral, rectory and school. Additional train noise and smoke will make property useless. New York Central abandons idea, and all trains to Exposition will go by way of East and North Buffalo, not touching the city proper. 32,33,34

DL&W special train brings 181 newspaper men-publishers, editors and reporters-to Buffalo from New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Chicago & Northwestern Railroad officials arrive in Buffalo via Michigan Central to tour Buffalo and Exposition grounds.

15 carloads of timber, agricultural and horticultural products coming from Oregon.

DL&W sending a full train comprised of a locomotive, baggage car, parlor car, coach, freight and coal car. Exposition officials are discouraging the wealthy from coming in own private railroad cars. No facilities available to service their "private varnish".

General baggage agents on all railroads serving Buffalo agree on a uniform system to handle parcels expeditiously.

APRIL, 1901

International Traction Company now has 800 trolley cars in service. This is 350 more then one year ago when 450 were in service.

300 Native Americans arrive by train over the Wabash from the west to take part in the Pan-American Exposition. The 300 Native Americans and their 200 horses arrived in two coaches with three cattle cars. Eventually 10,000 Native Americans will be here to take part in an International Congress.

28. "Notes In Bottles" Buffalo Morning Express, 1. October, 1899.
29. "Wilgus on The Front" Buffalo Morning Express, 5 May 1899.
30. "Terminal Station" Buffalo Morning Express, 24 June, 1899.
31. "Railway Terminal At Exposition" Buffalo News, 23 Oct. 1900.
32. "Central Wasn't Bluffing" Buffalo Morning Express, 9 March 1901.
33. "Diocese VS. Railroad" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 8 March, 1901
34. "Central Gives Up" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 7 May 1901.



          The Pan-American Exposition officially ran from May 1, 1901 through October 31, 1901. There was talk of prolonging the Exposition an extra week or two as it got near the end, but since October 3 1, 1901 fell on a Thursday, it was extended an extra two days, permanently closing on Saturday November 2,1901.

Total attendance, both free and paid admissions was 8,304,133. Of this total, an estimated 1,000,000 plus Exposition goers arrived at the railroad depot on the grounds, either as long distance travelers, or local area residents using the Belt Line Railroad or Interurban to Lockport and Niagara Falls. The remaining 7,000,000 travelers primarily used the city trolley lines to reach the grounds.

In the preceding chapter, we saw how the railroads made huge investments in rolling stock, improved terminal facilities, and fixed plant or right-of way. Now we see how this payed off as record numbers of travelers came by rail to Buffalo, New York to see the Pan-Ametican Exposition. The number of fair-goers were small at first, with 92,698 during the first week of May, by the first week of June, attendance reached 181,483, climbing to 277,685 the first week in July when the traditional summer travel season began. It reached 347,940 the first week in August, soaring to 436,804 the first week in September. By the first week in October it declined to 335,012. Closing week attendance figures were 308,630.35

As with any fair or exposition, there were special days designated for countries, states, municipalities, and various civic and fraternal organizations which could affect that days figures.

Herewith is a chronology of the traveling public by railroad and trolley line with important events from May 1, 1901 through September 5.

MAY, 1901

Buffalo Street Railway Company completes plans to change the routes of 29 car lines establishing different terminals and transfer points to handle 35,000 daily at Exposition terminals.

Every factory in the City of Dunkirk including Brooks Locomotive Works to close for Pan-American Dedication Day on the 20th to give all workers chance to attend. 4,000 expected, and Brooks Locomotive Works charters excursion train over Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad.

JUNE, 1901

New York Central to place additional cars on all trains to and from Buffalo and points east.

Grand Trunk Railway improves Buffalo-Toronto service and introduces service to the Muskoka and Brantford regions. Two new daily all vestibule direct trains Montreal-Buffalo. "International Ltd" being the day train. New train service direct to Detroit and Chicago, all by way of Niagara amd the Intenational Bridge over the Lehigh Valley Railroad.

Rochester, New York gets regularly scheduled daily round trip train connecting the Flour City with the Rainbow City beginning the 12th. Train operates direct to Exposition Terminal Station. Stops only at Center Park, Brown Street within Rochester limits and Batavia.

Michigan Central brings in nearly 3,000 from Toronto and points west of Windsor. Grand Tnmk brings in about 4,000 from points within 250 mile radius of Buffalo. Both on August 14th.

Lehigh Valley starts rate war with New York Central charging $1.15 round trip fare to and from Rochester which is 10 cents lower then the New York Central.

All railroads are enjoying phenomenal passenger train business per August 21st newspapers. Erie bringing in several hundred excursionists daily. Yesterdays Train #1 "Day Special" from New York took 15 to 20 minutes to unload. The engine was in the depot and the rear car was at Chicago Street. The Lehigh Valley is operating trains in three to four sections, up to 32 cars total. BR&P bringing in 1,500 passengers daily. Lake Shore is doing an enormous business and the Lackawanna is doing the business of its life. Nickel Plate arriving in Buffalo in the morning are in two sections. On the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific, and Wabash, business is described as magnificent, remarkably good, and an extraordinary revenue producer.  39/40

Hamilton Day on August 21st between 3,000 and 4,000 arrived in four specials, two each over the Grand Trunk and the Toronto, Hamilton, & Buffalo Railways.

Syracuse Day on August 22nd brought 6,000 excursionists in 6 specials over the New York Central.

Medina Day on August 29th brought in 4,000 excursionists over the New York Central

Batavia Day on August 31st brought in 5,000 excursionists over the New York Central and Erie Railroads.

During the month of August, 20,000 tickets were sold between the three railroad ticket offices in Dunkirk, the majority for Buffalo.


Labor Day, Monday, September 2, 1901 recorded the second highest attendance figure since the opening of the Pan-American Exposition, 103,772. The New York Central Railroad set a new record with a combined total of 60,000 passengers to and from Buffalo on regular and special trains. All eastbound trains on the Erie bound for New York City ran in 3 to 4 sections, each section comprised of 12 to 14 cars. All Lackawanna trains bound for New York City ran in two sections with extra cars. 2,163 passengers were carried between Binghamton and Ithaca. Lehigh Valley trains for New York City also ran in two to three sections.  41/42

JULY, 1901

Railroads criticized by Exposition Directors for not lowering the price of a ticket to come to Buffalo, providing more trains, and a longer time limit although the people seem to be coming. New York Central counters with statement that in maps, advertisements, circulars, folders, etc. it is booming the "Rainbow City." Their slogan is "Pan-Ameiican Exposition, Buffalo, U.S.A., May to November, 1901. All you need to have is a ticket by the New York Central Lines. All you need to say is "Put me off at Buffalo".    36

Trunk line railroads sell 20,000 excursion tickets from New York City to Buffalo during month of July.

"Railroads now handling about 75,000 people in and out of Buffalo every twenty-four hours. Prior to the Exposition about 317 passenger trains daily bringing in and out about 50,000. 153 more are now regularly scheduled, some running up to three sections. This doesn't even include the Specials . The Central or Exchange Street Station (NYC, LS&MS, PRR, GT, BR&P)added 113 trains to the former number of 245 for a total of 358. The Erie Station (Erie, Wabash, Nickel Plate)had 24 trains, now there are 40. At the Lehigh Valley Station there were 34, now there are 58. The Lackawanna Station runs 14 trains daily. No new trains, just extra cars and sections. Waiting rooms and train sheds are overwhelmed in the morning and evening and travelers have to sit on their suitcases as seats are impossible to find.    37

AUGUST, 1901

Pennsylvania Railroad in conjunction with Erie Lines over "Akron Route" offers sleeping car and day coaches between Nashville, Louisville, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Columbus and Buffalo.

Sixty-five excursion trains converged on Buffalo, on Saturday, August 3, 1901 from all points for "Midway Day." Biggest attendance to date; 106,315 The largest previous record setting days were Dedication Day 86,909 and the Fourth of July, 70,725. It was a banner day over all the railroads with standing room only on all trains even with extra sections and extra equipment on regular trains coming in from a 200 mile radius. The New York Central alone estimated 25,000 passengers that day.

"Nine out of every ten persons who entered the grounds during the middle forenoon by the railroad gate looked as if he had passed through a cyclone. If people looked as if their clothes were on hind side before, it was not their fault. Things were running that way at the terminal station. The railroad boys were making good and rubbing it in. It resembled a convention of advance agents of prosperity. Trainload upon trainload came in until the subways (underground passageways from platforms to fair grounds) were packed like a case of California prunes and the platforms were overrun, and two out of every three persons in the crowd had from one to three boxes of lunch. More than one of these lunch boxes looked as if it had been through a cider press after the gate had been passed".

It was one sight in a lifetime to see the billowy, surging rumbling crowd. It was distinctly representative of the country. Every town within a radius of 150 miles had apparently unloaded its population here. Ten special trains from 12 to 30 cars came in over the Central from the East alone. A corresponding number of excursions were handled by the Erie, Lehigh, Lake Shore, Michigan Central and other representative trunk lines. All the railroad officials declared that they were bringing their quota; that their facilities were taxed and they were satisfied."    38

To alleviate over-congested conditions at the Central or Exchange Street Station, effective September 4, 1901 and until the close of the Exposition, 32 local accommodation trains (16 NYC, 10 PRR, 3 BR&P, 3 West Shore) will land their passengers, baggage, and express near the Carroll Street freight house.    43

With the thousands of railroad employees throughout Western New York, Pennsylvania, and Ontario, Canada it was only natural that their respective railroads annual summer outing/picnic be combined and that everyone converge on the same day at the PanAmerican Exposition. "Railroad Day" was set for Saturday, September 14, 1901. Between the railroad employees, their families, and regular fairgoers, 200,000 were expected through the turnstiles. Committees were organized by members of the Central Railway Club of Buffalo to ensure this being the best day ever at the Exposition. The slogan was "Something-Doing-Every-Minute."

President William McKinley was originally scheduled to visit the PanAmerican Exposition on June 12, 1901 at the conclusion of his cross-country train trip which had begun in Washington, D.C. on April 29, 1901. Mrs. McKinley taking ill while in California necessitated cancellation of the remaining trip and the McKinley's spent the summer in Canton, Ohio.

It was now September 1901 and Mrs. McKinley having recovered from her illness, accompanied her husband as they traveled to Buffalo to keep their promise. The McKinleys made their wishes known in July to allow for adequate preparations. President's Day was declared on Thursday, September 5, 1901.

On the evening of September 4, 1901 a handsome train of Pullmans came over the Pennsylvania Railroad, the cars described as a "Hotel on Wheels," brought in diplomats from 11 foreign countries, some accompanied by their wives to participate in the President Day activities. The diplomatic party included included secretaries and attaches, a member of the Department of State, the Director of the Bureau of American Republics, and the tourist agent for the railroad. After passing through the Central Depot the train discharged its distinguished guests at the foot of Porter Avenue. Greeted by local officials, and they boarded carriages for the Niagara Hotel.

The President and McKinley's party of household staff, relatives and executive office staff departed from Canton, Ohio by train at 10 P.M. on Tuesday, September 3, 1901 over the Pennsylvania Railroad by way of Alliance to Cleveland. A large crowd gathered at the station and bade the party farewell. The remainder of the journey would be over the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. Cleveland was reached at 12:20 P.M. on September 4th. The train consist included a combination car and two Pullmans. Departing at 2 P.M. a wire was sent ahead that the train would reach Central Station at 5:55 P.M. and that it did to the minute. The Presidential Special stopped breifly at Dunkirk at 4:45 P.M. where Officials of the PanAmerican Exposition and the Mayor of Buffalo boarded and were warmly greeted by the McKinleys.

"When the train reached East Buffalo there were a crowd of men, women and children waiting. at the city line. A cheer went up as the train passed. From that point until the Presidential Party reached the Central Station, the track was lined with people. It seemed as if the entire population of the southeastern section of the city was out to greet the president. There was succession of cheers all the way from the city line to the station, and steam whistles added to the din. The first whistle snorted away in the direction of Tifft Farm. It was caught up by other whistles farther west, and then other whistles still nearer to the center of the city joined in the greeting. The shriek of steam whistles finally rolled on ahead of the presidential train, and when it came to stop at the Central Station, there was one unbroken chorus of ear-splitting noise from East Buffalo to Black Rock, and from Tonawanda to South Buffalo. Factory whistles, locomotive whistles, horns and church bells joined in the hubbub. Even Canada joined in from across the river. The noise was simply frightful. Mrs. McKinley stood it with patience, but it was evident that the demonstration was most painful to her.

The train stopped at the Central Station just long enough to permit Director General Buchanan (PanAm Exposition) and General Samuel M. Welch to get aboard, and the signal to go ahead was given. The train slowed up a little as it approached the Terrace station. A crowd was waiting there. It filled the expansive playground and overran the tracks and neighboring streets. The crowd cheered and waved hats and handkerchiefs as the train sped by.

The whistles along the waterfront were screaming themselves and everybody else into paroxysms of agony at that time.

Suddenly there was a thunderous boom. A cloud of white vapor rose from the mouth of the little brass piece on the Terrace. There was a rending and crashing of glass, the ground shook under the shock, and as the smoke lifted the crowd saw with consternation that all the windows on one side of the front coach had been blown in. The saluting cannon had been placed too close to the tracks. Fortunately, there was no one in the front coach. The parlor car in which the president and his party were seated was just back of the coach which caught the full force of the explosion ... It is unpleasant to think what might have happened had the discharge of the cannon come a moment later then it did.

The special train sped swiftly on toward the exposition after leaving the Terrace Station. There were people all along the track as far as Black Rock, gathered to greet the president. At the foot of Porter Avenue, there was a throng numbering between 8,000 and 10, 000...

At 6:25 P.M. the railroad terminal station at the exposition was reached. The train drew in on the track nearest the entrance to the exposition, was slowing down without a jar, and stopped with the rear platform of the president's car exactly opposite the railroad gate... A double file of bluecoats lined up on either side of the entrance from the platform to the entrance of the railroad waiting room... "    44

A small crowd of people were on hand in the waiting room for security purposes to greet the president and his wife. Spontaneous cheering and hand clapping erupted as they came into view.

"The president smiled and lifted his hat. Perhaps he wondered a little at the absence of the throng which he might naturally have expected to be there. He did not know of the multitude that had been patiently awaiting his arrival beyond the gate. As he could not see them.

Just inside the gate were the carriages in which the president and his party were to be driven to Mr. Millburn's home. They were all splendid turnouts, with perfect specimens of horseflesh and liveried coachmen and footmen. Surrounding the carriages was a platoon of mounted police.

There was a dense crowd around the railroad gate. It thronged every foot of space for rods on either side. From the railroad gate south over the grand canal bridge, past the electric tower, the machinery building, the court of fountains, out through the esplanade, and stretching on over the triumphal causeway, there was a narrow open lane, just about broad enough to permit a carriage to pass. On either side of the lane were the people. Beyond the narrow lane there were crowds everywhere. There wasn't a foot of vacant space. It was a forest of faces. There was a sea of them on the esplanade. The handstands were packed. The triumphal causeway and all the space surrounding swarmed with humanity. Beyond the great bridge, with its towering massive pylons, were more people. They crowded the lake shore and the bank o the right of the road. They stretched away right up to the gate of the Lincoln Parkway entrance and beyond. Not a foot of space was held sacred beyond that single narrow lane.

With a fine sense of decency which did credit to the people, no one intruded upon that lane. Everybody knew it was for the President's carriage, and that was sufficient. The exposition guards who had been stationed here and there to keep the crowd back had nothing to do. "The crowd itself kept the lane intact"...

The people were dead silent, the men with their hats off as they glanced at the smiling First Lady as she was helped aboard the carriage by her husband. The President climbed aboard next followed by Mr. Milburn. The impatient steeds took off, their hoofs like thunder. For the first time the crowd cheered wildly. The crowd quickly poured in behind the presidential carriage impervious to the other carriages. The guards shouted and it was a wonder that nobody was trampled.

"The coachman on the set of the second carriage brought his horses up on their haunches just long enough for a woman who stood in the way to scramble out of danger. There were two or three shrill screams, and then the throng split and the lane opened up again. The people gave way slowly and reluctantly, and it was not until the triumphal causeway was reached that the whole procession of carriages finally got together. The last coach was followed by a platoon of mounted police.

From the triumphal causeway to the Lincoln (Parkway) gate the ride occupied less than two minutes; and almost before the crowd knew it, the President and his escort had passed out of the exposition.

The president and members of his party arrived at the Milburn home, 1168 Delaware Avenue near Ferry Street at 7:10 P.M. and had a nice quiet dinner by themselves. During the evening a number of callers dropped in to pay their respects to the chief executive."    44

35. "Paid Admissions Were 5,306,859" Buffalo Sunday News, 1 Dec. 1901.
36. "News of Railroads" Buffalo Morning Express, 17 July, 1901.
37. "Increase in Travel" Buffalo Morning Express, 7 July, 1901.
38. "A Triumph, Indeed, Was Midway Day" Buffalo Sunday News, 4 Aug 1901.
39. "Large Crowds" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 21 August, 1901.
39a. "Heavy Travel" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 21 August 1901.
40. "In Sections" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 21 August 1901.
41. "Central's Labor Day Record" Buffalo Sunday News, 3 Sept, 1901.
42. "Great Traffic" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 3 Sept, 1901.
43. "Temporary Station" Buffalo Morning Express, 5 Sept, 1901.
44. "The Arrival" Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, 5 Sept, 1901.



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